Citations - Natural Sciences

In a world where magazines, journals and newspapers each often have specific publication style requirements, college faculty usually require one of several style manuals to guide their students' writing.  In many of the sciences, Scientific Style and Format, The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors and Publishers (7th ed., 2006) is the standard style manual. In the Busse Library, its call number is T11 .S386 2006 Ref.

Just as science developed a set of conventions for naming and symbolizing observations and theories to guide and facilitate communication of ideas, there are also conventions for the simple communication of citations in journal articles and other publications. While prepared by the Council of Biology editors, Scientific Style and Format is generic to all sciences.  Particular journals in all disciplines may use variants of these styles but unless instructed otherwise, either the N-Y or the C-S style examples are satisfactory.

Scientific Style and Format includes two basic citation styles.   One is the NAME-YEAR (N-Y) system and the other CITATION-SEQUENCE (C-S) system. The general order for the NAME-YEAR system is : author name(s), publication year, title, and other relevant information. The general order for the CITATION-SEQUENCE system is: author name(s), title and other information including year. On the literature cited page most journals use the hanging indent model for presenting citations.

Reference Citations in Text
The purpose for citing references within the narrative is to get readers to the complete citation in the literature cited section of the paper. The most common styles for this parenthetical information are as follows: 

Jones (1993) stated that... 

Age was significant in a number of studies. (Smith and Pears, 1963; White, 1982; Zayres, 1989)

Many theories of language development appear in the literature (see discussion in Allen, 1992).

Literature Cited
Included here are samples of how to cite the materials commonly used in undergraduate science reports, papers and assignments. All examples of print materials are given in both styles: N-Y and C-S, respectively.

Books
The N-Y style includes: author(s) [or editor(s)]. year. title. place of publication: publisher's name. exact pages used or total number of pages if the whole book is cited. Examples for both are given.

One Author
Parsons, PA. 1983. The evolutionary biology of colonizing species. New York: Cambridge University Press. p 12-24.

Parsons, PA. The evolutionary biology of colonizing species. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1980. 262 p.

Two or more Authors
Begon, M, Mortimer, M. 1981. Population ecology: a unified study of animals and plants. Boston: Blackwell Scientific Publications. 200 p.

Begon, M, Mortimer, M.  Population ecology: a unified study of animals and plants. Boston: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1981. p 112-115.

Corporate Author
Long Island Biological Association. 1963. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology. Vol. 28, Synthesis and structure of macromolecules. Cold Spring Harbor, New York: Biological Laboratory. 610 p.

Long Island Biological Association. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology. Vol. 28, Synthesis and structure of macromolecules. Cold Spring Harbor, New York: Biological Laboratory; 1963. 610 p.

Editor or Compiler
Rose, SPR., editor. 1982. Against biological determinism. London: Allison Busby. 184 p.

Rose, SPR., editor.  Against biological determinism. London: Allison Busby. 1984. 184 p.

Edition Other than First
Mcmillan, V. 1997. Writing papers in the biological sciences. 2nd ed. Boston: Bedford Books. 197 p.

Mcmillan, V.  Writing papers in the biological sciences. 2nd ed. Boston: Bedford Books.1997. 197 p.

Chapter in a Book
Rosko, MD, Broyles RW. 1988. The economics of health care. New York: Greenwood Press; Chapter 5, Hospital output measures; p 131-168.

Rosko, MD, Broyles RW.  The economics of health care. New York: Greenwood Press;1988. Chapter 5, Hospital output measures; p 131-168.

Unsigned Article in an Encyclopedia
Grzimek's animal life encyclopedia. 1984.Vol.4. Fishes 1. New York: Van
Nostrand Reinhold Co.; Chapter 4, The cartilaginous fishes; p 86-129.

Grzimek's animal life encyclopedia. Vol.4. Fishes 1. New York: Van Nostrand
Reinhold Co.; Chapter 4, The cartilaginous fishes; p 86-129.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

One Author
Gibbins, LN. 1999. Life: The defining enigma of biology. The American Biology Teacher, 61 (7):504-509.

Gibbins, LN. Life: The defining enigma of biology. The American Biology Teacher 1999, 61 (7):504-509.

Two or More Authors
Dove, CJ, Banks, RC. 1999. A taxonomic study of crested caracaras (falconidae). The Wilson Bulletin, 111 (3): 330-339.

Dove, CJ, Banks, RC. A taxonomic study of crested caracaras (falconidae). The Wilson Bulletin 1999; 111 (3): 330-339.

Magazine
Schlunz, L. 1999 Sep-Oct. Surfing for fish. Iowa Conservationist, 58 (5): 34-35.

Schlunz, L. Surfing for fish. Iowa Conservationist 1999 Sep-Oct., 58 (5): 34-35.

Newspaper
Jacobson, J. 1999 Oct 14. Senate send farm-aid bill to Clinton. The Gazette; Sect A:1(col 2).

Jacobson, J. Senate send farm-aid bill to Clinton. The Gazette 1999 Oct 14;Sect A:1(col 2).

Newspaper anonymous
[Anonymous] 1999 Oct 14. Senate rejects nuclear treaty. The Gazette; Sect A:1(col 2).

[Anonymous]  Senate rejects nuclear treaty. The Gazette 1999 Oct 14;Sect A:1(col 2).

Interviews
Interviews are indicated in the narrative but not in the references/literature cited in most journals in the biological and physical sciences..

Video (documentary)
Whitney Museum of Art. 1987. American Art Today A View from the Whitney: the 1987 Bieniel Exhibition from the Whitney Museum of Art. N.Y.: Whitney Museum of Art. Videocassette.

Whitney Museum of Art. American Art Today A View from the Whitney: the 1987 Bieniel Exhibition from the Whitney Museum of Art. N.Y.: Whitney Museum of Art, 1987. Videocassette.

Video(feature film)
Lean, D. 1993.  The Bridge on the River Kwai. Burbank, CA: Columbia TriStar Home Video, 1993. Videocassette.

Lean, D. The Bridge on the River Kwai. Burbank, CA: Columbia TriStar Home Video, 1993. Videocassette.

ELECTRONIC SOURCES
Individual electronic work (webpage).  There is one basic style. These examples are for an anonymous and an author identified webpage.

No Author
Transgenic and Targeted Mutant Animal Database. Available from: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Trans/hmepg.html    Accessed 1999 Oct 14.

Author Identified Webpage
Guttmacher, AE. "Breaking the News" - Talking With Parents about Their Child's Diagnosis. Available from: http://www.ornl.gov/TechResources/Trans/hmepg.html    Accessed 1999 Oct 14.

Online Fulltext Journal Article from a Commercial Vendor
Ben-Ari, ET. 1999. Electronic publishing: past, present, and future. BioScience [serial online]; 49(3):229(6). Available from: Expanded Academic Index http://web4.infotrac.galegroup.com/itw/ Accessed 1999 Oct 14.

Electronic Book
Baddeley, AD. Essentials of human memory.  Hove, England: Psychology Press, 1999.  Available from: netLibrary.com  http://www.netlibrary.com/ Accessed 2001 November 9.

Document on an organizational, governmental agency or institutional website.
American Nurses Association. 1996. Telehealth--issues for Nursing. Available from Nursing World Reading & Reference Room  http://www.nursingworld.org/readroom/ Accessed 2001 November 11.