Scholarly writing, as writing for other purposes, has a set of conventions and guidelines. These are set down in style manuals published by various persons and organizations. Scholarly, research and professional journals have guidelines for authors who wish to publish in them. Newspapers and popular periodicals often do also.
College and university instructors often require that term papers and other work conform to a specific style manual. The Chicago Manual of Style. (Call number Ref Z 253 .U69 1993) is sometimes used by students and scholars in many fields. Several of our Business faculty prefer this style for your papers.
While it is necessary to consult the Chicago Manual for the fine points of writing a paper, the basic formats for several of the common items included in bibliographies and endnotes are illustrated here. The bibliography is an author alphabetical list of the items cited somewhere in the body of the paper. It may also contain other works read but not necessarily cited. Endnotes are numbered lists, in order of first appearance in the body of the paper, guiding readers to the specific locations within a print or electronic resource. The style is quite different from the bibliography.
Most college papers are reviews of literature or position papers based on the literature. The paper, in effect is meant to summarize and to teach about a specific topic or viewpoint.
Typically a paper:
- states a problem
- summarizes past and current research
- discusses relationships, compares and contrasts or applies information to a problem.
When references are cited within the narrative, there are three styles to choose among. The most common is the author-date system. When quoting, use author-date, page(s).
Heraldry has modern usages (Allcock 1962).
"Good heraldry can flourish in America..." (Allcock 1962, 11)
If using endnotes along with a bibliography, citations are numbered in the text and endnotes in the order they are used. Example:
"Good heraldry can flourish in America..." 1
1 Hubert Alcock, Heraldic Design, New York: Tudor, 1962, 11.
Writing should conform to accepted grammar and punctuation standards. See The Chicago Manual of Style for these and lists of abbreviations, etc.
Indent second and subsequent lines of each citation in a paper. This is called a hanging indent. See the Books, Two or More Authors example below.
Sargent, Walter. The Enjoyment and Use of Color. New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1923.
TWO OR MORE AUTHORS
Garner, Diane L., and Diane H. Smith. The complete guide for citing government information sources: a manual for writers and librarians. Bethesda, MD: Government Information Service, 1993.
San Diego Museum of Art. Sculpture in California, 1975-1980: An Exhibition. San Diego: The Museum, 1980.
EDITOR OR COMPILER
Satin, Joseph, ed. 1966. Shakespeare and His Sources. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
EDITION OTHER THAN 1ST
Saxton, Dolores F., ed. Mosby’s Comprehensive Review of Nursing, 13th ed. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1990.
CHAPTER IN BOOK
Buchanan, George. "The History of Scotland, 1582." in Shakespeare and His Sources. edited by Joseph Satin, 560-569. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966.
UNSIGNED ARTICLE IN AN ENCYCLOPEDIA - [ Note: s.v. stands for sub verbo, under the word]
The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Archeology. s.v. "early man." New York: Crown Publishers, 1980. 62-70.
"The President and Black Americans." America 179. 12 (1998): 3.
Inchausti, Pablo. "Reductionist Approaches to Community Ecology." The American Naturalist 143.2 (1994): 201-221.
TWO OR MORE AUTHORS
Bernard, Mitchell and John Ravenhill. "Beyond Product Cycles and Flying Geese." World Politics 47 (1995): 171-202.
Moore, Thomas. 1994. "Soul Mates." Psychology Today, March/April, 26-31.
Fields, Suzanne. "Motivation, Not Money, is Message for Young." The Des Moines Register, 7 Mar. 1994, sec. A, p.5.
"Centerpiece of Reforms in Doubt." The Des Moines Register, 7 Mar. 1994, 3A.
Whitney Museum of Art. American Art Today A View from the Whitney: the 1987 Bieniel Exhibition from the Whitney Museum of Art. N.Y.: Whitney Museum of Art, 1987. Videocassette.
Video (feature film)
Lean, David, dir. The Bridge on the River Kwai. Burbank, CA: Columbia TriStar Home Video, 1993. Videocassette.
Interview citations should include the name of the person interviewed, by whom, where, and the date.
Jones, John. Interview by author. Cedar Rapids, IA., 1 January, 1996.
WORLD WIDE WEB
The World Wide Web (WWW) is a way to find multimedia information on computers called servers, on the Internet. Files found on the WWW should be acknowledged and cited like any other information. Sometimes information is available in paper (eg. magazine article) and also on the WWW. Always cite the version you used as there is no guarantee that they are exactly the same.
Included here are MLA citation exemplars for the files found on the WWW. The current advise from the publishers of the Chicago Manual of Style is to use MLA style for electronic sources. As electronic publishing is quickly growing and changing, the recommendations on citation format are also developing. These examples are based on the MLA Handbook 5th edition. The basic forms mirror the analogous print resources (articles, books) but should include the publication medium (WWW address), the date you found it.
One important difference in citing WWW sources is that page numbers are not used in the body of a paper. Electronic articles are one file and therefore one page. Links to additional files are also each just one page. If the article is also in print form and a starting page number or inclusive page numbers is/are used in a periodical index or on a webpage, that page number(s) is part of the citation on your literature cited page but not used in the body of your paper.
Electronically stored information is mutable. It is also ephemeral and may be here today and gone tomorrow, or it may move to another server at a new location. Take care to get the complete information needed for your citation. It may be several different files such as the journal title page and the article itself which may have several files.
Individual Electronic Work (webpage) Without Author
Latin Phrases and Words Used in English, <http://depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/classics/englatin.htm> (10 December 1999).
Individual Electronic Work (webpage) with Author
Beard, Robert, A Web on On-line Dictionaries, <http://www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/rbeard/diction.html> (10 December 1999).
Part of a Work (eg. online encyclopedia)
"Mutable", Hypertext WebsterInterface, <http://c.gp.cs.cmu.edu:5103/prog/webster?mut able.> (16 January 1996).
Document on an organizational, governmental agency or institutional website.
American Nurses Association, Telehealth--issues for Nursing, (1996), Nursing World Reading & Reference Room <http://www.nursingworld.org/readroom/> (11 November 2001).
Baddeley, A. D., Essentials of human memory, (1999), Hove, England: Psychology Press, netLibrary.com <http://www.netlibrary.com/> (November 09, 2001).
Journal Article from a Full-text Commercial Database
Steele, Kenneth M., Karen E. Bass and Melissa D. Crook, "The Mystery of the Mozart Effect: Failure to Replicate," Psychological Science, 10, no. 4 (1999), Expanded Academic Index ASAP, <http://web7.infotrac.galegroup.com/ ( 20 Sept. 1999).
Journal Article from the Publishers Website
Hart, William B., "The Intercultural Sojourn as the Hero's Journey," The Edge: The E-Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2 no.1 (1998), <http://interculturalrelations.com/v2i1Winter1999/w99hart.htm> (10 December 1999).
Magazine Article from a Full-text Commercial Database
Grochow, Jerrold M., "Productivity and the IT personnel shortage," PC Week, 23 August 1999, Expanded Academic Universe ASAP, <http://web6.infotrac.galegroup.com/itw/infomark/> ( 8 September 1999).
Magazine Article from a Publisher's Website
Reaves, Jessica, "Anti-Frankenfood Forces Try a New Tactic," Time, 15 December 1999, <http://www.pathfinder.com/time/daily/0,2960,36044-101991215,00.html> (15 December 1999).
Newspaper Article from a Full-text Commercial Database
Kearney, Syd, "Birders to Migrate South to Harlingen for Festival," The Houston Chronicle, 24 October 1999. Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, <http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe/form/academic/s_regionalnews.html> (15 December 2000).
Newspaper Article from a Publisher's Website
Boshart, Rod, "GOP Resumes Tax-cut Push," The Gazette, 19 May 1999, <http://www.gazetteonline.com/ialegis/1999/tax/99tx039.htm> (10 September 1999).
Image (art reproduction, photograph or other graphic)
Kaufman, Steve, "Japanese Crane in Snow," ca 1993, <http://search.corbis.com/ (10 November 1999).